Smart Syntax Key

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Word Colors
Verb Roots Verb Mood/Tense Gender
Verb wordHas Verb Root Masculine
Verb Participle wordSubjunctive Feminine
Verb Gerund wordImperative wordPlural
Verb Tense Symbols
InfinitiveInfinitiveCan also be used as a subject, as a predicticate nominative , as object of a verb or preposition
PresentePresenteOccurring now or always occurs.
FuturoFuturoWILL happen or may be happening now
Preterito_ImperfectoPreterito ImperfectoSomething completed in the past or viewed as completed in the past. Possibly multiple times or a recurring event. Stem changes in present do not affect preterite.
Preterito_Perfecto_SimplePreterito Perfecto SimpleSomething completed in the past. Just one event. Stem changes in present do not affect preterite.
Condicional_SimpleCondicional SimpleDescribes an act that depends on a condition. Could be in the past, present or future, as action depends on the passage of conditional event ie hypothetical future.
Mandato_PositivoMandato PositivoGiving an order or demand to someone to complete an action. Do something! Object after the verb. For the familiar singular form (tu) is normally formed by dropping the -s of the second-person singular.
Mandato_NegativoMandato NegativoGiving an order or demand to someone NOT to do something. Object before the verb. Uses the present subjunctive.
Impersonal VerbImpersonalAka: Weather verbs. Does not take a subject. Not really a tense, but good to know!
Verb Person (lessons and quizzes only)
First Person Singular First Person Singular Pertains to the speaker.
First Person Plural First Person Plural Pertains to the speaker and one or more other people.
Second Person Singular Second Person Singular Pertains to the person the speak is addressing (informal).
Second Person Plural Second Person Plural Pertains to more than one person the speaker is addressing (informal).
Third Person Singular Third Person Singular Pertains to either an entity (he, she or it) being described by the speaker or a person in a formal situation being addressed directly.
Third Person Plural Third Person Plural Pertains to either more than one entity (them or they) being described by the speaker or more than one person in a formal situation being addressed directly.
Verb Moods (lessons and quizzes only)
indicativeIndicativeUsed for true statements and to express positive beliefs
subjunctiveSubjunctiveUsed for discussing hypothetical or unlikely situations, the expression of emotions or opinions, or making requests.

Brown, Douglas H. 2001, Teaching by Principles: An Interactive Approach to Language Pedagogy. New York: Longman

Ellis, Rod. 1992. Second Language Acquisition and Language Pedagogy. Philadelphia: Multilingual Matters Ltd.

Ellis, Rod. 2001. SForm-focused Instruction and Second Language Learning. Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishers.